J DECEMBER 15. 1909. Address Before The Institute Of Indian Teachers And Employees At The M. K. Agricultural School, Standing Rock Agency Sept. 2. 3. 4. 1909. Members of the Institute: Ladies and Gentlemen. . It affords me great pleasure to address you and to be with you on this occasion at this school of which I had charge for 22 long years (1884 — 1908). This is the first Institute of Indian workers ever held at this school, and I am glad to be once more in the presence and company of people who are en- gaged in the same noble and meritorious and responsible work in which I have spent the best portion of my own life. It is good for you, my dear friends, to come together at times in or- der to exchange educational ideas, and also to encourage each other, for the life of a teacher, and of one in the Indian country especially so, is monotonous and varied at the same time. Its monotony comes from isolation, its variety is the teacher's com- mon lot everywhere — some days everything is bright and hopeful and then again everything is gloomy and hopeless. There is not much society in a reserva- tion boarding School, the com- forts are few and the work hard and continual, but you have to make the best of it, and the re- ward will not be wanting. The place, the school, in which we meet presents in itself quite a good deal of history about Indian educational life and school work. This Agricultural School, known from its beginning under the familiar name of '"Farm School," was opened in 1879, and was the first boarding school established on this Standing Rock reserva- tion. In 1882 ail the girls and smaller boys were transferred to the newly erected Agency Board- ing School — 16 miles north of here — and from that date till 1886 it was a real farm-school for larger boys only. When I took charge of it in 1884 1 found about 20 boys here, and as farming or any kind of manual work was not at all popular or welcome among the Indians of those days our ex- periences with the youngsters were certainly novel and varied. All employees were new, none of us understood the Sioux lang- uage, and the boys knowing this took certainly every possible ad- vantage of our "Greenness" in j the work, and gave us all kinds j of unpleasant trials.. Of the few i enrolled then I was never sure how many I would have the next day or hour. One of my most ' trying occupations was to count j them at meals and other gather- ings, and then it happened to me very often as the old schoolmas- ter in his quaint way put it: — "I saw some or many that were not here," as almost every day some would be in evidence or shine by their absence. The first Sunday I spent at the school not only some of the boys were absent "without leave,'' but also some of the horses were missing. In those days the Indian had not much inclination for anything out of his line, not for a civilized life, not for religion or anything real elevating. But these were the troubles of most Indian schools of that time, and we soon got used to them and gracefully submitted to the inevitable in the hope of better and brighter days. la spite of all difficulties and trials we continued our work from day to day as if nothing had happened the day before; the attendance soon increased and the regular routine work of school-life was firmly establish- ed. As the Indians, when I asked them for boy pupils, often used to offer me an excuse or refusal with the question, ''why I did not do anything for their girls. I came to the conclusion to remove this pretext by taking in girls also. Therefore in 1886 the school was reorganized for boys and girls and given literary, domestic and industrial departments which proved to be a move in the right direction as it gave satisfaction all around, and the attendance was soon increased to over a hundred, and sometimes we had as many as 150 pupils in the school. In the meanwhile schools mul- tiplied on the resrvation till we had four (4) large boarding— and several day— schools at different points. And if we now survey our field of action we find that conditions have greatly changed, and that the Indian of today has reached the most important pe- riod of his life and existence. The Indian has often been put on the cross road of life. In olden times he was called or or- dered in from the plains and forests and warpath and told to pitch his tent on the reservation under the immediate custody and supervision of his agent. By this he was deprived of much of the plentiful supply of fresh air with which nature constantly had pro- vided him and also of the whole- some exercise he had enjoyed in hunting and roaming freely through his country, not to speak of the plenty of good food he ate fresh fro the chase as the fruit of his labors, from the tent or tepee which had the window open all night '"he was next called to the one room, close, badly ventilated log cabin with the one half sash window the lights of which were often so smoky and dirty that he had to gooutside to see anything of the sun. moon or other lights. His luxeries in this to him so injuri- ous transition period were can- ned goods and the white man's porK and bacon together with badly cooked bread and other indigestable foods as Col. Mc- Laughlin, the well-known and tried veteran in the Indian ser- vice, in a recent interview de- scribed them and the conditions prevailing then to the point. The sad consequence of all this was the Indians health began to fail, and failed rapidly, and consump- tion and other diceases sent ma- ny in the prime of life to an un- timely grave. This hard process of life or living practiced its ravages on them for the last 25 or 30 years. In the meanwhile the Indian also was called to school, and the confinement in the school did also not always work for his benefit. But he has more or less adopted himself to the hard road of civilization, and brighter days are dawning upon the race. The Indian is now once more put on the cross road of life as his allotment, his por- tion of the Lord's creation is given him as his inheritance, railroads soon cross his country in all directions, he has to part with his surplus land, he is once more and for the last time fitted out with everything for his new life, gets heap of money for lands sold, towns spring up every- where with ever so many temp- tations, landsharks threaten to embrace him from all sides with their alldevouring claws and greedy fangs, all the drawbacks and vices as well as benefits, advantages and beauties of civilization surround him all at once as it were. This is then justly considered the most im- portant period in Indian life and an especial call and appeal goes out from him to us to give him the very best in the line of help and useful education that we have and can afford, to give him. Now more than ever you that are right on the ground here with him have to unite your efforts to make your work suc- cessful and beneficial to those in- trusted to your care. Practically every one employed in the In- dian Service is expected to be a teacher by word, action ynd ex- ample, from the Indian Agent or Supt. down to the last employee under him, for the whole Indian Service is an Educational Service instituted to raise a dependent race to a higher plane and sphere of life and independency, from savagery or semi-civilization into the fullest light of true civiliza- tion. Every one in the Indian Service must therefore have something or all of the true teacher in him— the teachers in the class-rooms, the industrial teachers and instructors, the field matrons, farmers and all. For everv one in the service is there- fore self control necessary, if we want to control others, as Milton says : ' 'He who reigns within him- self, and rules passions, desires and fears is more than King. In our own hearts we must reign first if we want to successfully rule over others. As teachers of a race that has to be led to civili- zation we are also educators. To educate means to develope a man physically, mentally, moral- ly and spiritually; it is to give to the body, the mind, the imagina- tion, the will, the heart and the conscience that power and beauty proper to each; it is the contin- ous methodical and systematical suggestion of what is true, use- ful and good and beautiful to the end that the pupil may be brought under its influence to form and mould his life. The final aim of all education is to hold the animal man in subjec- tion to the spiritual man. The more spiritual we make the sub- jects of our work or those en- trusted to our training the more civilized we w T ili make them; the more our results will be m con- trast to heathenism, paganism and savaregy. the more we have succeeded in chalizing and educating our pupils. To educate means originally to lead and drawout; it is not so much a puttingin or cramming i n process as a -drawing out, an unfolding of the faculties of body, mind, heart and soul which have DECEMBER 15. 1909. been dormant and sleeping and were never exercised before. We are certain that the faculties are all there in ths Indian as well as in the white child, but how to draw them out, how to de- velope them is the question, and tiie best way to do this is at once also the best method of teaching and educating. The end of man in his relation as a creature to his creator and God is happiness, eternal happiness, l and we can surely say that edu- cation is a principle help to se- ': cure temporal and eternal happi- ! ness. We will leave for tne present tne question of man's eternal happiness to religious education or man's religion, and 1 will only consider man's tempo- ] ral or social happiness to be ob- 1 tamed through a good education j as individual and as a social be- ing and member of family, state and society. Generally he is considered the best educat- 1 e d who can help himseif and ! others the best, and in this con- sists happiness for himself and ■ others,, True education there- j fore causes Happiness of the soul and heart if trained to virtue, it causes happiness of the mind and intellect if trained to knowl- edge, and it causes happiness of tne body if tratned to proper care of health — and strenght, — to proper exercise and development of ail bodily powers and faculties. ' The harmonious training of ■ Heart, Head and Hand causes and produces the right kind of happiness, Domestic Happiness. This tru« education means to teach man to do wnat is right, to do justice to himself, his fellow- men and to his God and Creator, to render to Caesor what is Cae- sar's and to God what is God's — or to follow the golden rule of life the faithful observance of which always causes happiness, pleasure and good will all around. The whole Indian child must go/to school just as well as any other child, and the more so be- cause the Indian, child has not the home education and tradi- tions the white or civilized child has- but has to learn almost everything, regularity in all things, new things to do and when and how to do them proper- ly. The teaching of the Indian child how to do things right or to do the right thing, also implies the duty to teach him how to avoid what is wrong and evil, to teach him not to do what is wrong. This is a very important factor in Indian education. The Indian with his child nature is naturally inclined to extremes and excess- es. We have then not only to develop his good God-given fa- culties, but we have also to curb and restrain his evil appetites, have to direct his wroug inclina- tions, have to teach him how to subdue them and when to say: No to the temptations of life. As he indulged often too much in his old time pleasures, so he is very apt to be given up too much to the pasttimes and enjoyment! of his new civilization. Many years ago it w T as dancing with him almost night and day; the famous Tom-Tom was heard through the camps at all hours and paint and 'feathers were in evidence all around. At that rate the Indian would never have amounted to anything as a mem- ber of civilized and christianizpd society. Therefore the greatest efforts were made on the part of th e G o v era m e n t and th e in i s sion - aries to direct his attention to better things, and it was clone with satisfactory results in many places. But after having given up his Indian dance he soon fell in excessive love with the white dance which was offered to him as a questionable substitute, and it was not all his fault, if his choice was wrong. Some of his educators added to the education of the three H's a fourth IT - they confined themselves not to the education of the Heart. Head and Hand, but at times put even more stress on the training of the Heels, so that the Indian readily stepped from one extreme over to the other. And these white dances soon alsd meant to him bad whiskey, bad association and many other bad things, because he was not taught moderation and the proper measure in en- joying himself. Touching on this point an incident of my early ex- periences in Indian School life comes to my mind. I had once a very sick girl at the school. Her father and mother were sitting near her sickbed, and ail at once the father (a man by the name of Short Baldhead. one of our neighbors) asked me, whether his daughter was given any me- medicine. "Oyes," I answered. ""'Weil, where is it?" -"Right here." "Is it good medicine?" "Yes.' ''Well then," the man continued, "if it is good medi- cine, why do you not give it to her all the time, why not make her drink it all along till she is j well?" The poor old man had no idea, that medicine, to do any good, had to be given only at cer- tain times and in certain doses. This reminds me of the Indian's erroneous actions and yiews in other ways, where he is taking his medicine wrongly all the time. If he begins to drink he feels like drinking all the time, aadso it is with gambling, smoking, danc- ing and other dubious practices; if he is once at it, and it is to his taste, he never lets up on it, no matter how injurious it might be to him. Only in working and a few other things he draws a line: there he is not at it all the time, there very few are found over- zealous. I met not long ago an Indian student who had just re- turned from one of our large non-r«srvation schools. Some time ago that school had changed superintendents, and the emloy- ees wanted to give the, new man a grand reception of which the principal feature was to be a big dance. Hearing of it he gave them to understand, that he was not in favor of the dance sajing": "'You had. as I am informed, enough of this here in the past. I will begin to educate my pupils at the head and not at the heels. That man evidently had the good will to introduce methods differ ing from those in vogue at oher schools. I have one of that kind in my mind, from which a pupil wrote home, and in describing the almost continual round of amusements they a ad there remarked: "Our school of soci- als, social means Dancing." You will see best where restitution and direction is necessary. Let the Indian have his pleasures and pasttimes, but within proper limits. I am no puritan, and do not entertain puritanical ideas. The Indians as all men are en- titled to the pleasures of life, but we should not put temptations in their w T ay; we should see that they do not overstep the boudery lines and commit excesses which hinder them from becoming use- ful, upright, sober and industri- ous men and citizens. The well known saying: "The only good Indian is a dead In- dian" is by far not as bad and horrifying as it is generally taken and interpreted. It shows simply how difficult it is to raise a man from the state of savagery and degradation to the higher regions of civilization, to make a man forget and change the ways trodden by his ancestors for cen- turies. The old pioneers and soldiers from whom it originated with all their many faults were as a rule true and plain and call- ed, as the saying is, a spade a spade. In fact the apparently hard dictum does not tell half or not more than half of the truth, for if the Indian, like any other man, is not good in life, he will hardly be good in death, for ac- cording to our christian view and belief our real and lasting good- ness or worthlessness begins with death in the other life, will be fully revealed only in death and what follows death. With and for us the real good Indian shall be the industrious, hard- working, sober and christian In- dian, to make him such shall be our honest endeavor, this shall be our moto and the great watch- word and purpose of our educa- tional, work and then he will be good both in life and in death. This is certainly a great and praiseworthy undertaking and worthy of our efforts and endur- ance. Kippling. the English poet said: "You cannot hustle the East." It applies also to out- West and our North West, to our Indian country. You cannot hustle the Indian population un- duly. The change must be grad- ual, and the patience of those who would accomplish satisfactory re- sults must be immense and colos- sal, although it is expected that more changes and progress will take place in the Indian life the next five years than were wit- nessed the last fifty years. -Let your work than be real, bene- ficial, useful and to the point. Do not feed the Indian with all sorts of educational fads and ex- periments which are to no pur- pose, but give him the real thing he needs most for life. Follow the old teacher's well known and time honored latin axiom: "Non scholae, sed vitae discimus ■ — we teach hot for the school, but for life.'' for the future life of our pupils. This shall be your guiding rule in all your indus- trial, intellectual, or litterary, moral and religious teaching. Let your life above all be a shin- ing example and most instructive object lesson to those people-— they are looking up to you for it. — You have undoubtedly come out here with the intent. on also to make your good living, tu improve your con- dition, to prepare the way for future premotions. to lay up something for a rainy day etc. Nobody can have any- thing against tin's. To the contrary, spendthrifts and debtma-ers and such liKe are not wanted in tne Indian service- I have found that the most saving em- ployees were also as a rule the best and most conscientious woriiers, tolerating no waste of government property and teaching tne pupils the rules of savii g and a sensible economy in all things by word and example, Impart all your good and bone. t and pure ambitions to your.pupils. But do not forget, you are not here, in your responsible positions, only for yourseives, but principally for your charges and pupils whom you shall train according to your best possibility for future usefulness, so that they be- come useful members of society, good citizens of tne country, and also good christians, because the needs of the heart and soul above all should not be neglected, and tney are supplied by the heip of religion. All sincere educators agree that moral virtues shall be taught and inculcated m school; but moral virtues are tne cnildren and fruits of religion. Do not then exclude the mother, if you desire the presence of the daughters within your school halls. I wish you all God's speed and the best of success for the coming school year. Teach the Indian Child well and honest- ly along all useful lines — makethe hand industrious, make the head and the mind and brain in it active and thoughtful, make the heart righteous and the soul beautiful and bright by christian graces and virtues, then your work is well done and is bound to be blessed and fruitful for this life and the world to come.